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Sodium cyanide is a kind of basic chemical raw material. It is easily hydrolyzed to generate hydrogen cyanide. It will produce highly toxic and flammable hydrogen cyanide gas when exposed to acid. It is mainly used in precious metal smelting, electroplating, chemical synthesis and other industries.
The mining industry has historically used sodium cyanide for gold extraction since the latter half of the 19th century, and remains the largest of the end users of the sodium cyanide market. About 75% of global sodium cyanide consumption is used in the mining industry, and about 90% of sodium cyanide consumption in North America is used in mining.
In the mining industry, sodium cyanide is often used to leach precious metals such as gold and silver. With the expansion of the global mining scale for precious metals, the demand for sodium cyanide is also increasing. Sodium cyanide manufacturers around the world are also continuing to expand their production scale to meet market demand. For instance, Cyanco announced the expansion of its manufacturing plant in Nevada, USA in 2018, for the continuous supply of sodium cyanide around the world.
This article will analyze the sodium cyanide market situation from the distribution of global sodium cyanide production capacity and the favorable and unfavorable factors affecting the sodium cyanide market.
In 2015, the global total production capacity of sodium cyanide was approximately 1.79 million tons per year (calculated as 100% sodium cyanide, the same below), and the output was approximately 1.35 million tons. In 2019, the global total production capacity of sodium cyanide is about 1.92 million tons, and the total output is about 1.45 million tons. The average annual growth rate of output from 2015 to 2019 is about 1.8%. The global production of sodium cyanide from 2015 to 2019 is shown in Figure 1.
In 2019, global sodium cyanide production was mainly distributed in Asia, accounting for approximately 59% of the total global production capacity, followed by North America, Oceania and Europe, accounting for 15%, 9% and 14% respectively. The distribution of global sodium cyanide production capacity in 2019 is shown in Figure 2. The main global sodium cyanide manufacturers include Hebei Chengxin Group of China, Cyanco of the United States, Anhui Shuguang Chemical of China, Orica of Australia, Chemours of the United States, TongshuPetro of South Korea, Cyplus of Germany, Gold Reagents of Australia, etc.
The global sodium cyanide market is a stable pattern, with a few large manufacturers occupying a large market share, and many small and medium-sized enterprises are competing for the remaining market share. The Asia-Pacific region, the Middle East and Africa are the main exporters of sodium cyanide, while Latin America and European countries are the main importers of sodium cyanide.
1) The gold cyanidation process has a history of more than 100 years. Because of its simple process and high gold recovery rate, it occupies a dominant position in the current gold industry. Including in developed countries such as the United States, gold cyanidation method is used to extract gold from gangue gold mines.
2) Sodium cyanide is an ideal choice for gold processing due to its cost-effective, fast leaching speed and easy availability. About 85 to 90 percent of gold production companies use sodium cyanide.
3) Local and foreign investment in the mining industry in Latin America has been increasing. As the scale of the mining industry continues to expand, the demand for sodium cyanide has also increased.
4) In recent years, high-grade gold ore has become less and less. Investors are starting to target low-grade gold mines, where consumption of sodium cyanide per ton of ore has been increasing.
1) Because cyanide is a highly toxic substance, there are potential safety hazards and environmental pollution risks during transportation, storage and use. In addition, the discharge of industrial cyanide-containing wastewater and solid waste will seriously pollute water sources and the soil environment, thereby affecting the health of surrounding residents and destroying the ecological balance.
2) Due to the high toxicity of sodium cyanide, gold cyanidation method is extremely controversial. At present, many countries in the world have begun to introduce policies to restrict the use of sodium cyanide, such as the United States, Australia, Germany, and the European Union.
3) In recent years, a variety of low-toxic environmentally friendly gold leaching agents have appeared on the market, which are gradually replacing part of the market share of sodium cyanide. For example, YANTAI ITAO MINERAL PROCESSING REAGENTS CO., LTD’s newly developed cnfree low-toxic gold leaching chemical can 100% replace sodium cyanide without changing the original leaching process and equipment, as well as meet the advantages of both sodium cyanide and eco-friendly leaching reagents. It is very popular among gold mine owners.
In summary, the main driving factor for the future market growth of sodium cyanide is the continuous development of the downstream precious metal smelting industry. At present, there are still a large number of gold and other precious metal deposits to be mined around the world. With the continuous advancement of exploration technology, there is still a lot of room for the production of gold and other precious metals to rise. In addition, the growth of chemicals, electroplating and other industries is also an important factor driving the growth of the sodium cyanide market.
From a policy point of view, due to environmental pressures, many countries have begun to introduce policies to restrict the use of sodium cyanide, and low-toxic gold leaching chemicals will have a certain impact on the sodium cyanide market.
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