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Gold cyanidation method will produce a large amount of cyanide tailings during the gold production process. The treatment of cyanide tailings has become one of the main problems in the gold industry. After harmless treatment, cyanide tailings are filled to underground goaf with paste filling technology, which provides a new idea for the treatment of cyanide tailings.
Paste filling operation in underground mining plants is mainly to prepare one or more kinds of mine solid waste materials and water into a pastelike paste with certain stability, fluidity and plasticity. Under the action of external force (pump pressure) or gravity, the shape of a structure flow is transported to underground goaf through pipelines to achieve the purpose of filling.
If the cyanide tailings produced by the beneficiation plant are backfilled underground using non-paste filling technology, a large amount of water needs to be added for slurry making. After the slurry is made, the slurry concentration is low, and the heavy metal ions in the slurry after backfilling underground may pollute the groundwater. If the cyanide tailings produced by the beneficiation plant are filled with paste, because the concentration of the paste is high and the bleeding rate is low, the heavy metal ions in the cyanide tailings will not diffuse with the sewage, avoiding the pollution of groundwater resources. Therefore, when using cyanide tailings to backfill underground goaf, paste filling technology should be preferred.
Gold cyanide tailings should be decyanated before backfilling. The technical requirements are as follows:
1. The cyanide tailings slurry should first be decyanated by solid-liquid separation and precipitation method.
2. The filter residue after solid-liquid separation and washing should be deep decyanation treatment by ozone oxidation method, hydrogen peroxide oxidation method and other methods that are not prone to secondary pollution.
3. The Inco method, alkaline chlorination method and cyanide reduction precipitation method should not be used to decyanide cyanide tailings.
The harmless cyanide tailings is a relatively stable inert material, which can be used as the main aggregate for paste filling in underground gold mines. Using paste filling technology to fill harmless cyanide tailings has the following advantages:
1. The heavy metal ions in the harmless cyanide tailings do not infiltrate, and they will cause little water and soil pollution after being backfilled underground. Paste filling can reduce the diffusion of heavy metal ions in the harmless cyanide tailings and meet environmental requirements. Because the paste does not segregate, the fine cement and harmful ions in the filling slurry made of harmless cyanide tailings will not precipitate. After the paste is consolidated, the structure is compact and the percolation is low, which can effectively seal the heavy metal ions in the harmless cyanide tailings.
2. Paste filling can effectively solve the problems of slow sedimentation speed and low strength caused by the finer particle size of the harmless cyanide tailings. Using paste filling technology to fill the harmless cyanide tailings underground, the fill object has a short solidification time and can shorten the stope cycle. The fill object can be self-supporting and has certain strength in a short time, shortening the interval time of filling and reducing the interference of filling operation on mining production.
3. The paste filling system runs stably and can be produced continuously for a long time. The paste filling concentration is high, the slurry does not have a critical flow rate, and does not precipitate in the pipeline, which avoids the body injury of the cyanide tailings to the underground dredging and filling pipeline operators and the pollution of the tunnel when the pipeline is blocked. The filling system is highly automated, the system runs stable and reliable, and the filling quality is guaranteed. The paste is in the form of a plunger flow in the pipeline, which has little wear on the pump, stirring tank and pipeline.
4. Adopting paste filling technology, no need for dehydration, low engineering and maintenance costs, can greatly improve the stability of underground mines and reduce support costs.
To sum up, cyanide tailings paste filling technology has great advantages in environmental protection, safety, economy and efficiency, which is the development direction of cyanide tailings treatment technology in the future.
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